Kindling vitamin knowledge in corona crisis -Zayed Shahnewaz
Flu vaccination shields one from flu, similarly vaccination against measles can make vaccinated guys safe from measles. But when there is no vaccine for any health crisis like coronavirus,people must have some protective gears and measures. People may also need to know about potential diets that cure more than the doctors.
In the event of vaccine’s absence people hunt natural preventives or diets which can guard them from disease like Covid-19 pandemic. Vitamins can fend off such new diseases as the vitamins are very important micronutrients for human body. The role of vitamins is so versatile that these are considered the functional agents of body. That’s why it is essential to know about the vitaminsbefore going to kitchen market with the shopping list.
As twenty first century is the age of biology characterized with over 55 thousand diseases including obesity, people need to know which types of vitamins remain stored in body and which don’t so that they can buy things or foodstuff judiciously. Their shopping list should have a balanced look. They shouldn’t buy those protein-and-vitamin-rich foods profusely as such injudicious shopping will end up causing different types of diseases. A dietician can help you designing a best kitchen market list which will facilitate you to stay fit even in such international health crisis like coronavirus pandemic. A little knowledge of home economics may bail you out of this conundrum.Your health lies in your shopping list.
Vitamins generally cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet bodily needs and therefore must be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source. For this reason, vitamins are called essential nutrients. The article will discuss about the types of vitamins, their depletion time, requirements, their deficiency diseases, causes and the process to recover from those diseases.
Vitamins are grouped into two categories—fat-soluble and water-soluble.
Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fatty tissue. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are absorbed more easily by the body in the presence of dietary fat.
There are nine water-soluble vitamins —Vitamin C,Vitamin B1,B2,B3,B5,B6,B7, B9 and B12. They are not stored in the body. Any leftover water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine. Although, the body keeps a small reserve of these vitamins, they have to be taken on a regular basis to prevent shortage in the body. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years. Some vitamin-like factors are also needed by the body such as: (1) Choline (2) Carnitine.
Vitamin A: Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that stores in the liver. Vitamin A is found in two forms — Retinol and Carotenoids. Retinol is an active form of vitamin A. It is found in animal liver, whole milk, and some fortified foods.
There are more than 500 known carotenoids. Vitamin A promotes good eyesight, especially in low light. It also has a role in healthy pregnancy and breastfeeding. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called free radicals. Its deficiency causes many diseases including night blindness.To avoid these, food diet is the primary treatment. Foods which consist Vit-A & Carotenoids are egg yolk, liver, cod liver oil, carrots, pumpkin etc. As vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin, it is normally stored in body fat. So while needed body can use it’s stored vitamin. Just as vitamin A deficiency can negatively impact health, getting too much can also be dangerous.
VitaminD: Vitamin D is responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate and multiple other biological effects. A human body produces vitamin D in response to sun exposure. A person can also boost their vitamin D intake through certain foods or supplements. Vitamin D plays a significant role in the regulation of calcium and maintenance of phosphorus levels in the blood. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency may include, regular sickness or infection, fatigue, bone and back pain, impaired wound healing. For better nourishment with Vit-D-rich foods such as salmon, mackerel, and tuna egg yolks, cheese, beef liver, mushrooms, fortified milk.
Vitamin E:Vitamin E is a group of eight fat soluble compounds.It benefits the body by acting as an antioxidant, and protecting vitamins A and C.About 60 percent of vitamin E in the diet comes from vegetable oil. This also includes products made with margarine and salad dressing. Vitamin E sources also include fruits and vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds and fortified cereals.Though Vitamin E deficiency is rare but its deficiency can cause nerve and muscle damage that results in loss of feeling in the arms and legs, loss of body movement control, muscle weakness, and vision problems.
Vitamin K:Vitamin K is an important factor in bone health and wound healing.It helps to produce four of the 13 proteins needed for blood clotting. Deficiency diseases in newborns are associated with vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB (also known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn). This can cause excessive bleeding and bruising and, in severe cases, can lead to fatal bleeding into the brain. It is found in the following foods: Green leafy vegetables, such as kale, spinach, turnip greens, collards, mustard greens, parsley, romaine, and green leaf lettuce. Vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage. Fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals contain it too.
Water soluble vitamins:
Vitamin B-1: Vitamin B-1 or thiamine is an essential nutrient that all tissues of the body need to function properly. Thiamine was the first B vitamin that scientists discovered. This is why its name carries the number 1.It helps the body turn food into energy but it’s can lead to two major health problems: beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.Food sources of thiamine include whole grains, meat,fish,breads, cereals.
Vitamin B-2: Vitamin B-2 or riboflavin is a vitamin that is needed for growth and overall good health. It helps the body break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats to produce energy, and it allows oxygen to be used by the body.The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include skin disorders, excess blood and edema of the mouth and throat, lesions at the corners of the mouth, swollen, cracked lips, hair loss, reproductive problems, sore throat.Eggs, meats, and low-fat milk, green vegetables, fortified cereals, bread, and grain products are good sources of riboflavin.
Vitamin B-3: Also known as niacin B-3 is an organic compound whichcan be obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon, lesser amounts in nuts, legumes and seeds.Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3). Symptoms include inflamed skin, diarrhoea, dementia, and sores in mouth.
Vitamin B-5: Vitamin B-5is synthesized from the amino acid ?-alanine and pantoic acid.Food sources of pantothenic acid include animal-sourced foods, including dairy foods and eggs. Potatoes, tomato products, oat-cereals, sunflower seeds, avocado and mushrooms are good plant sources.Severe deficiency can cause numbness and burning of the hands and feet, headache, extreme tiredness, irritability, restlessness, sleeping problems, stomach pain, heartburn, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.
Vitamin B-6: Vitamin B-6 is required by your body for utilization of energy in the foods you eat, production of red blood cells, and proper functioning of nerves.The richest sources of vitamin B6 include fish, beef liver and other organ meats, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit (other than citrus).Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with microcytic anemia, electroencephalographic abnormalities, dermatitis with scaling on the lips and cracks at the corners of the mouth and swollen tongue, depression and confusion, and weak immune function.
Vitamin B-7:Vitamin B-7is one of the B complex vitamins that help the body convert food into energy.It helps to keep your skin, hair, eyes, liver, and nervous system healthy. Signs of overt biotin deficiency include hair loss and a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area. Neurologic symptoms in adults have included depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numbness and tingling of the extremities, ataxia, and seizures.Foods that contain the most biotin include organ meats, eggs, fish, meat, seeds, nuts, and sweet potatoes.
Vitamin B-9: Vitamin B-9or folic acidis the synthetic form of folate, which is a naturally occurring B vitamin. Folate helps make DNA and other genetic material. It is especially important in prenatal health. Folic acid supplements are standard for pregnant women and women who plan to become pregnant. Folic acid reduces the risk for birth defects of a baby’s brain and spine, spina bifida and anencephaly by 50% or more. Folic acid may also lower the risk of preeclampsia and early labour is normally found in foods such as dried beans, peas, lentils, oranges, whole-wheat products, liver, asparagus, beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and spinach.
Vitamin B-12: Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that helps keep the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy and helps make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. Vitamin B12 also helps prevent a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia that makes people tired and weak.If one has vitamin B12 deficiency, he/she could become anemic. A mild deficiency may cause no symptoms. But if untreated, it may lead to symptoms such as: Weakness, tiredness, or lightheadedness.Vitamin B12 is naturally found in animal products, including fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products.
Vitamin C: Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron.It’s involved in many body functions, including formation of collagen, absorption of iron, the proper functioning of the immune system, wound healing, and the maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.The richest sources of ascorbic acid including Indian gooseberry, citrus fruits such as limes, oranges and lemons, tomatoes, potatoes, papaya, green and red peppers, kiwifruit, strawberries and cantaloupes, green leafy vegetables.Persistent lack of vitamin C in your diet can lead to a condition called scurvy. Symptoms of scurvy include easy bruising, easy bleeding and joint and muscle pains. Vitamin C deficiency can be treated with supplements of vitamin C and a diet rich in vitamin.For adults, the recommended daily amount for vitamin C is 65 to 90 milligrams (mg) a day, and the upper limit is 2,000 mg a day. Although too much dietary vitamin C is unlikely to be harmful, megadoses of vitamin C supplements might cause diarrhoea.Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency can start to appear after 8 to 12 weeks. Early signs include a loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, irritability, and lethargy. Within 1 to 3 months, there may be signs ofdifferent deficiency diseases including anemia. Citrus fruits create a great citadel against coronavirus.