Partial prophetic duties of ICD -Abu Muaj and Ifrith Islam
Human existence is threatened by many diseases, injuries and harmful habits. They are caused due to exposure to many different difficult situations overnight and sometime for over the years or because of psycho-physical deformities. Some diseases are sourced from habits, lifestyles, whim, hobby, seduction, trend, addiction, mania and even jobs. Some afflict humanity bacteria and virus. Possibility of accidents from the way we move, things that we use, food that we eat, vehicles that we pull, push or drive and the gadgets that we use in everyday life. Carpet industry involves Hay fever causing a runny nose, itchy eyes, congestion, sneezing and sinus pressure.
Too much motion may end up inflicting motion mania. Hobby like caving is the recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems may involve Histoplasmosis. Even falling in love with boys or girls is diagnosed as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Personality disorders often make a human vulnerable.
There are some other types of personality disorders. Paranoid personality disorder is one of them. It is characterised by a pattern of irrational suspicion and mistrust of others, interpreting motivations as malevolent. Schizoid personality disorder is another foe of humanity. The syndromes include lack of interest and detachment from social relationships, apathy, and restricted emotional expression. Schizotypal personality disorder is a similar type of disease of a human who suffers extreme discomfort in interacting socially, and struggles with distorted cognitions and perceptions. Another human enemy is antisocial personality disorder. The patient of this disease demonstrate pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, lack of empathy, bloated self-image, manipulative and impulsive behavior. Selfish people are suffering from this disease. A borderline personality disorder afflicted person shows a pervasive pattern of abrupt mood swings, instability in relationships, self-image, identity, behavior and affect, often leading to self-harm and impulsivity. Histrionic personality disorder is exposed through a pervasive pattern of attention-seeking behavior and excessive emotions. Narcissistic personality disorder is characterised by pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and a perceived or real lack of empathy. Apart from the aforesaid problem one can get dependent personality disorder always seeking help from others and one can also have obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who wants rigid conformity to rules, perfection, and control to the point of satisfaction and exclusion of leisurely activities and friendships (distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder).
The diseases and problems we discussed above are a few of the thousands of human enemies. Now the questions are: How many human foes are there in the present world? Who is that great friend that will make you aware of your enemies? World Health Organisation (WHO) is the answer but more narrowly it is the job of International Classification of Diseases (ICD). So far ICD has identified over 55000 diseases, harms and injuries that are the human enemies.
Their job is not limited within listing only. ICD indexes the syndromes and ways to treament process for the doctors. The institute is a great human friend. A friend in need is a friend indeed. In old days ICD could have attained the prophethood. In old days prophets (peace be upon them) used to make people aware of the human dangers around and how to keep those enemies away from your territory. Sometimes the same job is done by knowledgeable parents, wise men and good friends do the job of making aware of dangers partially. But ICD list of human hazards almost spares none. Then do you think every gadget company, which produces machines that harm human eyes, ears, hearts etc, should have a watchdog from ICD or WHO to check the production and marketing of harmful technologies.
After the creation of ICD in 1948, WHO (World Health Organization) published the 6th version, ICD-6, for the first time. The ICD has been revised and published in series of editions to reflect advances in health and medical sciences over time.
ICD-10 was made to go public in May 1990 by the Forty-Third World Health Assembly. Even though, the work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and completed in 1993. It mainly contains codes for disease, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases. More than 20000 scientific articles were cited and used by more than 100 countries around the world. The code set in the base classification allows for more than 14,400 different codes and that helps to permit the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to ICD-9. Through the use of optional sub-classifications the number of codes can be expanded over 16000. For example, ICD-10-Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) has over 93,000 codes.
The national adoption of ICD is happening gradually. About 27 countries use ICD-10. Czech Republic introduced ICD-10 in 1994. The Czech Republic uses the international version of ICD without any local modification. Brazil introduced ICD-10 in 1996. Canada introduced ICD-10-CA in 2000. China adopted ICD-10 in 2002. Among other countries France, Germany, Korea, Netherlands, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom, and United States adopted the ICD-10 respectively.
The introduction to ICD-11 took place on 18th June 2018 to allow Member States to prepare for implementation including translating ICD into their languages.
ICD-11 will be basking in the glory of achievement in 144th Executive Board Meeting in January 2019 and the Seventy-second World Health Assembly in May 2019 and, following endorsement, Member States will start reporting using ICD-11 on 1st January 2022.
Typed professional jobs some times dehydrate certain type of human energy, ending up in a disease or diseases. Industry insider’s diseases are different from each other as professions differ diversely. It’s true that even healthy workers can’t stay immune from the effect of the profession. At the end of the day a profession leaves a mark on the lifestyle of the employee involved in. Most of the time workers become weak when they work overtime or beyond their limit. When the occupational diseases inflict they lose energy to work. Gradually the employee becomes too debilitated to work and become unemployed.
The very first occupational disease was discovered in 1775 in a chimney sweep boy by Sir Percival Pott (1714-88) and the disease was squamous-cell carcinoma of the scrotum- are a number of different type of cancers. In the poem ‘The Chimney-Sweeper’ English poet William Blake narrates a chimney sweeper:
When my mother died I was very young,
And my father sold me while yet my tongue
Could scarcely cry ‘Weep! weep! weep! weep!’
So your chimneys I sweep, and in soot I sleep.
Dirty environment is a source of many diseases that’s why a proverb goes: Cleanliness is next to godliness. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: ‘Attohuru shatrul iman’ which means cleanliness is part of belief. Occupational diseases usually inflict lung, skin and visions primarily. For the people with desk-job are at the risk of losing vision because they have to focus eyes at the computer for long hours. The eye muscles are unable to recover from the strain due lack of adequate sleep. Some symptoms of CDS includes headaches, blurred vision, neck pain, fatigue, irritated eyes, double vision, dry eyes, dizziness, polyopia and difficulty refocusing the eyes.
A Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is an injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive task, forceful exertion, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve. The main symptoms are pain, numbness and tingling in the thumb, index finger, middle finger and the thumb side of the ring fingers. The pain may extend to the arm.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms mainly include abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems, inability to have children and tingling in the hands and feet. Sometime it may lead to severe cases anemia, seizures, coma or death.
Perkinsons is an occupational disease that afflicted famous American boxer, philanthropist and activist Mohammad Ali Clay. His hands used to wobble and he couldn’t work with his hands
Sometimes whims and hobbies, apart from occupations, invite dangers. The recent example is the Thai boys trapped in Tham Luang cave. Twelve boys with their teacher got trapped inside on June 23. It was feared that they may be inflicted by caver’s or darling disease. The boys without knowing the dangers that hung in the cave air went into it. Usually the silent diseases Histoplasmosis like lurking in the cave could kill within few hours, days, months or years. The disease, apparently having syndromes of tuberculosis is characterised by non-specific respiratory symptoms, often cough or flu-like. But thank Allah the boys didn’t contact the diseases and the boys have got back home recently.
You can buy things you need but if you have excessive money you may end up suffering from Compulsive Buying Disorder (CBD), or oniomania. The disease is characterised by an obsession with shopping and buying behavior that causes adverse consequences. Such shopaholics experience as an irresistible–uncontrollable urge, resulting in excessive, expensive and time-consuming retail activity [that is] typically prompted by negative affectivity” and results in “gross social, personal and/or financial difficulties”. Most people with CBD meet the criteria for a personality disorder. Compulsive shopping is classified by ICD-10.
What prophets (peace be upon them) used to do were to teach the people lifestyle, warn them against the dangers around and give good tidings to the followers of the codes of life and law abiders. ICD is making people aware of human enemies, the injuries and sources of dangers for them along with researching the therapies, suggestions, warnings and medications to be followed. And the human ability to lead a psychophysically sound and moral life, avoiding the over 55,000 dangers, diseases and disorders particularly the psychological ones may create a peaceful world once again. Because powerful people with psychological and personality problem are plaguing our planet. n